With the removal of almost all the quantitative restrictions on imports and with the decks cleared for integration of Indian economy with the global one, a need was felt to harness our competitive advantage in international trade.
Agriculture was perceived as one sector where such a potential existed. The provisions of Agreement on Agriculture, implemented in letter and spirit, could create such an opportunity. However, despite the potential, there was a lot to be done to get the supply chain going.
The objective, therefore, was to take a look at an agriculture produce in a comprehensive manner – right from farm to the palate – so as to be able to deliver an appropriately priced and attractively package quality product in the international market. Thus emerged the concept of Agri Export Zone, which found a place in the exim policy announced for the year 2001-2002 as a separate chapter.
Promotion of agricultural exports is important for creating conditions for providing remunerative prices to farm products. Sporadic efforts have been made in the past for promoting exports of agricultural produce/products from the country. Thus on one hand Research and Development has taken place with little bearing on the development of a particular agricultural produce for the purpose of export, on the other hand financial and fiscal incentives are being provided for exporting a particular produce without actually addressing pre-harvesting and post-harvesting practices.
Though India ranks as the world's second largest producer of horticultural crops, the country fares less impressively on processing fronts. Lack of adequate storage facilities is one of the main problems faced by food processing industry leading to almost 30-40 percent wastage of the production. Simultaneously, most of the varieties grown in India are simply not suitable for processing. Therefore the concept of Agri Export Zones developed by APEDA aims to improve the levels of food processing to reduce waste , increase marketability and help farmers to enjoy higher value of realization. It takes a comprehensive look at a particular produce/product located in a contiguous area for the purpose of developing and sourcing the raw materials, their processing/packaging, leading to final exports. Thus, the entire effort is centered on the cluster approach of identifying the potential products, the geographical region in which these products are grown and adopting an end-to-end approach of integrating the entire process right from the stage of production till it reaches the market.
However, the entire effort begins with market analyses to assess the market potential for that produce. Subsequently, steps are taken to ascertain the quality parameters that are required for making this produce/product acceptable in the international market.
The attempt then is to see what sorts of interventions are required at each stage of the value chain to come up with such a produce/product.
These interventions commence right from availability of inputs like seeds, fertilizers, pesticides, credit etc. This would then entail research into the pre-harvest protocols, if they do not already exist and application and extension of these protocols and practices in the fields of identified farmers.
Development of harvesting protocol, its implementation and the post-harvest management are all critical links in the value chain. These would include activities like storage (both intermediate and final), grading, sorting, processing, packaging and transportation. Each of these activities would involve a specialised intervention, which could be technological (hence would involve research) or financial.
It will also identify/enlist difficulties/ problems encountered at each stage. These difficulties could be procedural in nature or may relate to a particular quality standard. A package needs to be developed to suggest solutions to these problems. Corrective time bound measures will then be delegated to specific government agencies. The APEDA will ensure that the measures are completed on schedule. Export quality products will have specific niche markets identified and will be promoted extensively. Under the programme, international Agricultural experts may also be invited to demonstrate modern harvesting technologies.
Finally, it is the marketing, which is the key to the success. The capability to position the product in an appropriate market and getting an appropriate price would ultimately determine whether the AEZ could get going.
What is being sought to be done through Agri Export Zones is nothing new. However, the novelty lies in the fact that this concept does not conform to the traditional understanding of the concept of a ‘zone’ where there is a physical demarcation of boundaries, which are built by brick and mortar. There is also no export obligation on the basis of mere fact of this being an export zone. The obligations, if any, emanate from the licenses which the exporter choose to take. The concept, therefore, is much more flexible. It hinges primarily on ‘convergence’, ‘partnership’ and ‘focus’.
‘Convergence’ relates to putting together of all the ongoing schemes of Central and State Governments to take care of the financial interventions required at various stages of value chain. Thus, whereas the extension and inputs related assistance can flow from Ministry of Agriculture schemes, funds for reefer vans and marketing assistance could come from APEDA. The cold storage could be assisted by NHB and processing plant by Ministry of Food Processing. The idea is to converge and utilize such assistance for an identified produce rather than assisting different products in different places sporadically, without addressing issues relating to the entire value chain.
The ‘partnership’ envisaged between Central Government, State Government, farmer, processor and the exporter lies at the heart of the concept of AEZ. All the players have to come together otherwise AEZs will not work. Each relationship is as important as the other. Thus, consistent supply of produce by the farmer to the processor is a critical link in the value chain. Similarly, the commitments of the Central and State Government and their capacity to deliver and deliver quickly is crucial. All the these players have to work together. Fortunately, perhaps on account of recognition of mutual interest, in most of the AEZs sanctioned so far this partnership is evolving on the right lines, though there is still a long way to go with issues like ‘contract’ farming, which will provide a lasting solution to problems relating to supply chain management, yet to be resolved. However, the heartening feature is the willingness of each player to find such a solution and some models are already emerging.
The ‘focus’ that AEZ provides to agri-export related issues enables a quicker resolution of these issues. There have been a number of such issues at the State, national and international level, that have been sorted out as they were prominently highlighted, consequent to the declaration of AEZs. Reduction of import duty on flowers by EU and reduction in the interest rate on credit to farmers are some such examples.
A variety of interventions, as mentioned earlier, by various agencies mark the development of AEZ. The ‘financial intervention’, in form of various assistance schemes run by a number of Central and State Government organization, enables access to subsidies. Organisations like APEDA, NHB, MOA, DFPI, NCDC and SFAC have provisions for such schemes. Financial assistance gets extended to activities like productivity enhancement, micro irrigation, improvement of quality, R&D, pre and post-harvest training and extension services, maintenance of cool chain, packaging, apart from market development and freight support for selected products.
The ‘fiscal interventions’ come directly from Central and State Governments with the primary objective of enabling duty free access to inputs for the purpose of exports. Thus, the advance licenses become available for sourcing duty free inputs. Facility for concessional duty import of capital goods gets extended not only to direct exporters but also to service providers. The State Governments contribute by way of exemption of all duties, cess and taxes on inputs that go into production for exports.
The ‘monetary intervention’ has come by way of availability of concessional credit (at packaging credit rates) to the farmers. This has been facilitated through a circular issued by RBI.
The ‘administrative intervention’ entails identification of an institution by the State Government for carrying out research for various activities, earmarking of extension teams for the AEZ, clearly specifying and defining the roles of various State agencies, which includes identification of nodal agency to coordinate the work at the state level for executing the project.
The ‘legislative interventions’ become necessary if some laws and regulation have to be amended to facilitate procurement, processing or transportation for exports. The initiative taken by the Government of Uttar Pradesh in enabling direct procurement of agriculture produce by the processors obviating the ‘mandi’ procedure, has gone a long way in promoting smooth procurement. Some State Governments are actively contemplating to bring about a legislation to facilitate contract farming as well. Tamilnadu has already taken the lead.
The Agri Export Zone begins with the preparation of a feasibility report by the State Government. This report is submitted to APEDA, the designated nodal agency for AEZ. After a preliminary evaluation by the Coordination Committee, chaired by Chairman, APEDA, it is put up for consideration to an interdepartmental Steering committee, headed by the Commerce Secretary. Once the project is approved, an MOU is signed between APEDA, representing the Central Government and the State Government. This MOU provides for upfront commitments of the Central and State Governments. A detailed action plan is then worked out for each set of activities. An advertisement is issued by the State Government to solicit private sector investment in the wake of various upfront commitments by respective Governments. Once the private sector entrepreneurs are selected, it becomes a private sector driven zone with the Government and their agencies providing the committed support and interventions. An elaborate web based monitoring system has been evolved to closely follow up each activity on the basis of a PERT chart.
The policy pronouncement was not expected to set the Yamuna on fire. However, the underlying objective was to get the States involved in the process of exports, a task which was hitherto considered difficult if not impossible. All the previous efforts to involve the State governments in promoting exports had not had the desired impact. The attraction in the AEZ was the benefit that was likely to accrue to the farmer. Thus, AEZ became politically acceptable. This also explains the enthusiasm with which the States have taken up the task of setting up these zones. Not many schemes of the Central Government have got going in the first year of the implementation. As many as twenty Agri Export Zones were approved in the first year itself. In fact, surpassing all expectations, exports have already started taking place from some of the zones. The Agri Export Zones have got going, though there is still a long way to go. The concept itself is still evolving and the last word has still to be written.
Measures envisaged to promote exports from such Zone
Both Central as well as State Government and their agencies are providing a variety of financial assistance to various agri export related activities. These extend from providing financial assistance for Training and Extension, R&D, Quality Upgradation, Infrastructure and Marketing etc. Thus, whereas Central government Agencies like APEDA, NHB, Deptt. of Food Processing Industries, Ministry of Agriculture provide assistance, a number of State Governments have also extended similar facilities. All these facilities would have to be devoted and extended to promote agri exports from the proposed Zones in a coordinated manner. Some additional features like providing grants from Market Access Initiative fund could also be considered by the state governments.
The benefits under Export Promotion Capital Goods Scheme, which were hitherto available only to direct exporters, have now been extended to service exporters in the Agri Export zones. Thus, even service provided to ultimate exporters will be eligible for import of capital goods at a concessional duty for setting up of common facilities. They shall fulfill their export obligation through receipt of foreign exchange from ultimate exporters who shall make the payments from their EEFC account.
Exporters of value added agri products will be eligible for sourcing duty free fuel for generation of power, provided the cost component of power in the ultimate product is 10% or more and the input-output norms are fixed by the advance licensing committee of the DGFT. In view of the power intensive nature of most of the value addition, almost all the exporters of value added agriculture produce will become eligible for such facility. Similarly, input-output norms can also be fixed for sourcing other inputs, like fertilizer, pesticides etc. duty free for cultivation purpose.
3. MONETARY ASSISTANCE
Monetary intervention. Availability of concessional credit (at packaging credit rates) to the farmers.
NABARD has issued Circular to provide refinance to commercial banks for financing of farmers for cultivation / production of identified crops / commodities in AEZs under contract farming. The banks financing farmers will charge interest not exceeding 10.5% p.a. on their loans under the scheme.
These interventions are made primarily by the State Governments for the following :Deputation of scientists for research Identification of farmers Preparation of extension literature Identification of extension teams Extension work. (These tasks can also be undertaken by Pvt. Sector)
5. LEGISLATIVE INTERVENTIONS
Bring about changes in the existing legislation /rules/regulations/to facilitate exportsThe initiative taken by the Government of Uttar Pradesh in enabling direct procurement of agriculture produce by the processors obviating the ‘mandi’ procedure, has gone a long way in promoting smooth procurement. Some State Governments are actively contemplating to bring about a legislation to facilitate contract farming as well. Tamilnadu has already taken the lead.
Negotiate with the international trading partners for providing market access :Reduction in tariffs and subsidies Removal of non tariffs barriers
Benefits of Agri Export Zones :
The anticipated benefits to accrue as a consequence of setting up of such zones are as follows:
i. Strengthening of backward linkages with a market oriented approach.
ii. Product acceptability and its competitiveness abroad as well as in the domestic market.
iii. Value addition to basic agricultural produce.
iv. Bring down cost of production through economy of scale.
v. Better price for agricultural produce.
vi. Improvement in product quality and packaging.
vii. Promote trade related research and development.
viii. Increase employment opportunities.
Novelty of Agri Export Zones
No physical demarcation of boundaries, which are built by brick and mortar. No export obligation on the basis of mere fact of this being an export zone (The obligations, if any, emanate from the licences which the exporter choose to take)Hinges primarily on ‘convergence’, ‘partnership’ and ‘focus’.
Convergence of all the ongoing schemes of Central and State Governments The extension and inputs related assistance from Ministry of Agriculture schemes, funds for reefer vans and marketing assistance from APEDA. The cold storage by NHB and processing plant by Ministry of Food Processing.
Focus: Quicker resolution of agri-export related issues
Examples - Reduction of import duty on flowers by EU reduction in the interest rate on credit to farmers
Operation of the Concept
The entire approach of promoting the Agri Export Zone would have to be taken on a project mode. This would mean that the State Governments would need to identify potential export products which could be selected for development with a cluster approach. State Governments will have to evolve Projects which are feasible and are possible to be implemented immediately. They have also to conform to the indicative guidelines given below. The States will forward such project proposals to APEDA which will conduct the initial scrutiny of the proposals .If found feasible, APEDA may provide necessary guidance in preparing the detailed project report. This report, after preliminary scrutiny, will be placed before the Steering Committee which has been constituted under the chairmanship of Commerce Secretary with the following members:
1. Director General of Foreign Trade, Member 2. Joint Secretary (EP Agri Division, DOC) Member 3. Joint Secretary (Deptt. of F.P.I.,MOA) Member 4. Joint Secretary [Infrastructure Division, DOC] Member 5. Executive Director, NHB Member 6. Representative of DG, ICAR Member 7. Director (Finance, Deptt. of Commerce) Member 8. Chairman, APEDA Convenor
Once the project proposal of a State has been approved by the Committee, an MOU would be signed between APEDA (on behalf of the Central Government) and the State Government for providing possible assistance at each stage of the project.. The responsibilities of the State government would also be defined in the MOU, a draft of which is under preparation.
Guidelines for State Governments
The proposal of the State Government for developing an Agri Export Zone would need to take into account all activities necessary to set up projects in such a Zone. Some basic guidelines for developing such projects are detailed below:
Responsibilities of the State Government
To enable the Agri Export Zone achieve the objectives of the concept and to make the projects viable, it is necessary that the Central and State Governments work closely with each other. This would imply certain pro-active steps to be taken by the States with regard to the following :
SCHEMES OF APEDA AT A GLANCE :
Schemes for Market Development :
i) Activity for development of packaging standards and design.
APEDA’s internal scheme for development work through involvement of institutions / organization in India and abroad with the cost sharing with exporters and / or organizations involved in the export promotion. Maximum amount in case of sharing with exporters / organization is Rs.5 lakhs or Rs. 50 /-
ii) Assistance to exporters for use of packaging material as per standards and specifications developed or adopted by APEDA.
30% subject to ceiling of Rs.1.50 lakhs per beneficiary.
i) Development and dissemination of market information data base on products, infrastructure, markets and pre-feasibility surveys / study etc.
100% to be implemented by APEDA
ii) Assistance to exporters, growers organizations, trade associations for conducting surveys, feasibility studies etc.
50% of the total cost subject to ceiling of Rs.2.00 lakhs per beneficiary.
iii) Assistance to Semi Government, State Government, Public Sector Undertakings for Conducting surveys, feasibility studies etc.
50% of the project cost subject to ceiling of Rs.10 lakhs per beneficiary.
Conducting surveys, feasibility studies etc.
100% of the cost
i) Supply of material samples, product literature, development of web site advertisement etc, for publicity and market promotion for fairs / events organised / sponsored by APEDA.
100% of the cost
ii) Publicity & promotion through preparation of product literature, Publicity material, advertisement, film etc by APEDA.
100% of the cost.
iii) Brand publicity through advertisement etc.
40% of the cost subject to a ceiling of Rs. 1 lakh per beneficiary.
iv) Export promotion by APEDA undertaking activities like buyer-seller meet product promotion, exchange of delegations, participation in Exhibitions / Fairs / events etc.
Schemes For Development of Infrastructure:
SCALES OF ASSISTANCE FOR 10TH PLANON CONTINUATION BASIS
Establishment of common infrastructure facilities by APEDA or any other Government or Public Sector agency like Airport Authority of India or Port Trust etc.
A) Assistance for purchase of specialised transport units for animal products horticulture and floriculture sector.
25% of the cost subject to a ceiling of Rs.2.50 lakhs per beneficiary.
B) Assistance to exporters/ producers/ growers/ Cooperative organization and federations for horticulture and floriculture sector for
i) Mechanisation of harvest operation of the produce.
25% of the cost subject to a ceiling of Rs.5.00 lakhs per beneficiary
ii) Setting up of sheds for intermediate storage and grading/storage / cleaning operation of produce.
25% of the cost of equipment subject to a ceiling of Rs.5.00 lakhs per beneficiary
iii) a) Setting up of mechanized handling facilities including sorting, grading, washing, waxing, ripening, packaging & palletisation etc.
25% of the cost of equipment subject to a ceiling of Rs.10.00 lakhs per beneficiary
b) Setting up of pre cooling facilities etc. with proper air handling system/ cold storage for storing the produce
c) Providing facilities for pre-shipment treatment such as fumigation, X-ray screening, hot water dip treatment, Water softening Plant
d) Setting up of integrated post harvest-handling system (pack houses / green houses with any two or more of the above facilities)
25% of the cost subject to a ceiling of Rs.25 lakhs per beneficiary
e) Setting up of vapor heat (treatment, electronic beam processing or irradiation facilities
50% of the cost subject to a ceiling of Rs.25 lakhs per beneficiary
f) Assistance for setting up of environment control system e.g. pollution control, effluent treatment etc.
g) Setting up of specialised storage facilities such as high humidity cold storage deep freezers, controlled atmosphere (CA) or modified atmosphere (MA) storage etc.
25% of the cost subject to a ceiling of Rs.10 lakhs per beneficiary
Schemes for Quality Development :
Scale of Assistance
(A) i) Assistance to exporters, producers, trade associations, public institutions etc. for setting up / strengthening laboratories.
50% of the total cost subject to a ceiling of Rs.5 lakhs per beneficiary.
ii) Assistance to exporters & producers for installing quality management, quality assurance and quality control system such as ISO series, HACCP, TQM etc. including consultancy, quality improvement and certification for these.
50% of the cost subject to a ceiling of Rs.2 lakhs per beneficiary for each system
iii) Activities related to standardization and quality control such as preparation of quality assurance manuals, guidelines, documents standards, upgradation and recognition of labs for export testing, certifying exporters as Premium Quality Exporters etc. pesticide management program, national and international standardization activities.
100% internal scheme of APEDA.
iv) Upgradation and recognition of labs for export testing.
For upgradation upto 50% of cost for private labs and upto 100% of the cost for Central / State Government / University laboratories subject to a maximum of Rs.50 lakhs.
v) Testing of water, soil residues of pesticide, veterinary drugs, hormones, toxins contaminants in agricultural produce / products.
50% of the cost of tests subject to a ceiling of Rs.2000 per sample. Payment shall be made direct to laboratories and not to individual exporter.
Schemes for Research and Development:
Assistance to support Research and development for export efforts through R & D organizations in Government sector .
100% APEDA’s internal scheme .
Assistance to exports, Trade Associations , Cooperative institutions etc. to support relevant research & development for export enhancement through R & D organizations in cooperative/ private sector .
Upto 50 % of the total cost of the project subject to a ceiling of Rs. 10 Lakhs.
Schemes of National Medicinal Plants Board - Department of Indian Systems of Medicine and Homeopathy Ministry of Health and Family Welfare Government of India
Promotional and Commercial Schemes of National Medicinal Plants Board
Designated Areas for Financial Support
Project proposals could be submitted in the following designated areas of Promotional / Commercial schemes for overall development of medicinal plants in general and with special reference to 32 species, prioritised and identified by the Board viz:
Emblica Officianalis Gaetrn
Saraca asoca (Roxb.) de Wilde
Withania somnifera (Linn.) Dunal
Aconitum heterophyllum Wall. ex Royle
Aegle marmelos (Linn) Corr.
Phyllanthus amarus Schum & Thonn
Bacopa monnieri (L.) Pennel
Santalum album Linn
Swertia chirata Buch-Ham
Tinospora sordifolia Miers
Gymnema sylvestre R. Br
Commiphora wightii (Arn.) Bhandari
Plantago ovato Forsk
Nordostachys jatamansi DC
Gloriosa superba Linn
Andrographics paniculata Wall. ex Nees
Garcinia indica Chois
Saussurea costus C.B.Clarke (S.lappa)
Picrorhiza kurroa Benth ex Royle
Solanum nigrum Linn
Glycyrrhiza glabra Linn
Chlorophytum borivillianum Sant.
Coleus barbatus Benth. / C.vettiveroides
Piper Longum Linn.
Berberis aristata DC.
Crocus sativus Linn.
Rauwolfia serpentina Benth. ex Kurz
Cassia angustifolia Vahl
Asparagus racemosus Willd.
Ocimum sanctum Linn.
Embelia ribes Burm. f.
Aconitum ferox Wall
Proposals could also be taken up for any other medicinal plant for which there is assured market.
Project Proposals can be submitted in the following areas:
I- Promotional Schemes
1. Survey and inventorization of medicinal plants
2. In-situ conservation and ex-situ cultivation of medicinal plants.
To encourage in-situ conservation and ex-situ cultivation of selected medicinal plants, particularly endangered species which have appeared in Indian Red Data Book (IRDB) and negative list of CITES.
To create region-wise and species wise medicinal plants demonstration centres (herbal gardens).
3. Production of quality planting material
To producer germ plasms of quality planting materials in bulk by developing improved agro-techniques and other appropriate technology.
4. Extension centres - Information, education and communication.
Awareness through audio-visual aids, talks, seminars, training, workshops, etc.,
Training & visit of growers and collectors to demonstrations plots, research centres and other related organisations in the country.
Activities encouraging cultivation for growing medicinal plants
Extension material on medicinal plants.
5. Study demand supply position and marketing of medicinal plants for domestic and global market.
Study in respect of state-of-art creating and developing infrastructure for the purpose of value addition, shelf life, storage of drugs conforming to international standards
6. Research and development in medicinal plants sector.
7. Strengthening capabilities of NMPB:- The Scheme, related to man-power for NMPB including pay and allowances to staff, office infrastructure, computerisation, etc.,
8. Promote co-operative efforts among growers and collectors of medicinal plants.
9. Value addition and semi processing of products of medicinal plants.
10. Undertake / assist or encourage scientific technological and economic research on medicinal plants.
Applicable to government organisations for grant in the specified areas above.
Non-government Organisations (NGOs) are eligible for certain areas except R&D activities.
II Commercial Schemes
1. Production and ensure supply of quality planting material.
2. Area expansion for selected species and cultivation in more than 2 ha. land area.
3. Value addition - for developing proper harvesting techniques, semi-processing of produces viz. collection, grading, drying, storage, packing, etc.,
4. Develop innovative marketing mechanism.
Registered growers, association/federations of growers, traders, manufacturers, societies, pharmaceutical companies, NGOs and recognised private research institutes or any group of people who have past 3 years experience in medicinal plants sector.
Financial Assistance to farmers:
In case of farmers financial assistance would be as under:
Small and marginal 50% (operational land area below 2 hectare.)
Medium 40% (operational land areas 2-10 hectares)
Large 30% (operational land area 10 hectares and above)
For the above activities in the case of NGOs, Societies / cooperatives financial assistance would be provided to the extent of 30% of total expenditure, as explained above.
Mango Pulp & Fresh vegetables
Chitoor (Kuppam Food Park, GD Nellore, Tavanampalle, Bangarupalem, Irala, Pakala, Palamaner, Pootalapattu, Punganur, Rama Kuppam, Shantipuram, V-kota, Gudipalle Mandals)
Mango & grapes
Ranga Reddy, Medak and Mehboobnagar
Kamrup, Nalbari, Barpeta, Darrang, Nagaon, Morigaon, Karbi Anglong and North Cachar
Fresh & Processed Ginger
Grape & Grape Wine
Nasik, Sangli, Pune, Sholapur, Satara and Ahmednagar
Muzzafarpur, Samastipur, Hajipur, Vaishali, East and West Champaran, Bhagalpur, Khagaria, Sitamarhi, Saran and Gopalganj, Begulsaraj
Mango and Vegetables
Ahmedabad, Khaida, Anand, Vadodara, Surat, Navasari, Valsad and Bharuch
Simla, Sirmour, Kullu, Mandi, Chamba and Kinnaur
Jammu & Kashmir
Srinagar, Baramulla, Anantnag, Kupwara, Kathua and Pulwama
Baramula, Anantnag, Pulwana, Badguam, Kupwara, Srinagar,Jammu Region - Doda, Poonch, Udhampur, Rajouri and Kathua
Ranchi, Hazaribagh and Lohardaga
Tumkur, Bangalore Urban, Bangalore Rural, Hassan, Kolar, Chitradurg, Dharwad and Bagalkot
Bangalore (Urban), Bangalore (Rural), Kolar
Bangalore (Urban), Bangalore (Rural, Kolar, Tumkur, Kodagu and Belgaum
Thrissur, Ernakulam, Kottayam, Alappuzha, Pathanumthitta, Kollam, Thrivanthapauram, Idukki and Palakkod
Potatoes, Onions and Garlic
Malwa, Ujjain, Indore, Dewas, Dhar, Shajapur, Ratlam, Neemach and Mandsaur
Guna, Mandsaur, Ujjain, Rajgarh, Ratlam, Shajapur and Nimach
Ujjain, Ratlam, Mandsaur. Nimach, Indore, Dhar, Shahjapur, Dewas, Bhopal, Sehore, Vidisha, Raisen, Hoshangabad, Harda, Narsinghpur and Bhopal
Ratnagiri, Sindhudurg, Raigad, Thane and Aurangabad
Aurangabad, Jalna, Beed, Latur, Ahmednagar, Nasik
Pune, Nasik, Kolhapur, Sangli
Nasik, Ahmednagar, Pune, Satara and Solapur
Ginger and Turmeric
Cabbage, Broccoli, Okra, Peas, Carrot, Baby Corn, Green Chillies, Green Beans, Tomatoes
Fatehgarh Sahib, Patiala, Sangrur, Ludhiana and Ropar
Singhpura, Zirakpur, Distt. Patiala and Satellite Centres at Rampura Phul, Muktsar, Ludhiana and Jullundar
Gurdaspur, Amritsar, Kapurthala, Jalandhar, Hoshiarpur and Nawanshahar
Flowers (Orchids) & Cherry pepper
North East, South & West Sikkim
Madurai, Theni, Dindigul, Virudhunagar, Thirunelveli
Kumarghat, Manu, Melaghar, Matabari and Kakraban Blocks
Agra, Hathras, Farrukhabad, Kannoj, Meerut, Baghpat and Aligarh
Lukhnow, Unnao, Hardoi, Sitapur and Barabanki
Saharanpur, Muzaffarnagar, Binaur, Meerut, Baghpat and Bulandshahar
Bareilly, Shahajahanpur, Pilibhit, Rampur, Badaun, Bijnor, Moradabad, JBPantnagar, Saharanpur, Mujjafarnagar, Meerut, Bulandshahar, Ghaziabad
Udhamsingh Nagar and Nainital
Dehradun and Pantnagar
Udhamsingh Nagar, Dehradun, Haridwar and Nainital
Medicinal & Aromatic Plants
Uttarkashi, Chamoli, Pithoragarh, Dehradun and Nainital
Darjeeling, Jalpaiguri, Uttar Dinajpur, Kooch Bihar & Howrah
Approved on 5.3.2002 Draft Mou sent to State Govt. and APEDA, awaiting their concurrence
Hoogly, Budhwan, Midnapur, Uday Narayanpur, Howrah
Malda and Mursheedabad
Nadia, Mursheedabad and 24 Parganas
Assistance available from different agencies : Snapshot View
Pre Harvest Management
POST HARVEST MANAGEMENT
R & D
Developed from information available at :
Hand out relevant for Programmes on Financing Agriculture, Agri Exports, Agri Business etc. prepared by C P Mohan, Deputy General Manager and Member of Faculty, Reserve Bank of India, College of Agricultural Banking, Pune. The handout is Developed from information available at http://www.apeda.com/aezcdrom/about-evolution.html and http://www.foodindia.org/agri.asp
Agri Export Zones , By: C.P.Mohan